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Zeroing in on Goodwill

Goodwill is a term that might cause a little confusion for some.  But at its heart, it is a relatively straight-forward concept.  Goodwill is generally viewed as a term that encapsulates everything from a business’s reputation to the goods, services and products it provides.  The key idea is that there is goodwill if the business is viewed as a true and functioning business that has longevity in the marketplace. 

The Importance of Reputation

It is important to point out that many of the aspects that go into defining goodwill are not easily noted on a balance sheet.  One of those elements has already been mentioned in the form of reputation.  A good reputation is an intangible asset that is hard to put an exact dollar amount on.  Imagine that you had a choice between two businesses that were almost identical.  However, one business enjoyed a strong reputation while the other had a reputation for poor customer service and goods and services.  This decision would be an easy one for most prospective buyers.

Going Beyond the Numbers

When a buyer pays more than the recognized value of a business, goodwill usually plays a major role.  There are many variables that can be included into goodwill such as quality and track record of management; strength of the local economy; the loyalty of the customer base; good relationships with suppliers; copyrights; trademarks and patents; name or brand recognition; specialized training and knowhow.  The list goes on.  Business brokers and M&A advisors will be sure to highlight these goodwill factors to prospective buyers.  Factors that impact the longevity of a business, and its long-term potential, should not be overlooked.

The Evolving Meaning of Goodwill

In recent years, the accounting profession has changed how it deals with the concept of goodwill and how it is factored into decisions.  Since the rise of the Industrial Revolution, many large companies were built around the ownership and use of heavy equipment and machinery; however, in the last two decades there has been a shift away from tangible assets and towards intangible assets. 

Assets under the umbrella of intellectual property, including patents, trademarks, brand names and more, are now considered key aspects of goodwill.  In short, in the last twenty-years, goodwill has taken on a more complex and varied meaning.  Today, businesses are not necessarily based around massive factors and huge assembly lines.  Workers and management in the world’s largest companies 50 years ago would be hard pressed to explain the inner workings of some of today’s corporate juggernauts.

Goodwill is more complicated than ever before.  This factor serves to underscore the value, and importance, of working with an experienced, capable and proven business broker or M&A advisors.  The goodwill elements within a business need to be highlighted so that prospective buyers fully understand the business’ real value. 

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What Makes a Deal Close?

For every reason that a pending sale of a business collapses, there is a positive reason why the sale closed successfully.  What does it take for the sale of a business to close successfully?  Certainly there are reasons that a sale might not close that are beyond anyone’s control.  A fire, for example, the death of a principal, or a natural disaster such as a hurricane or tornado.  There might be an environmental problem that the seller was unaware of when he or she decided to sell.  Aside from these unplanned catastrophic events, deals abort because of the people involved.  Here are a few examples of how a sale closes successfully.

The Buyer and Seller Are in Agreement From the Beginning

In too many cases, the buyer and seller really weren’t in agreement, or didn’t understand the terms of the sale.  If an offer to purchase is too vague, or has too many loose ends, the sale can unravel somewhere along the line.  However, if prior to the offer to purchase the loose ends are taken care of and the agreement specifically spells out the details of the sale, it has a much better chance to close.  This means that a lot of answers and information are supplied prior to the offer and that many of the buyer’s questions are answered before the offer is made.  The seller may also have some questions about the buyer’s financial qualifications or his or her ability to operate the business.  Again, these concerns should be addressed prior to the offer or, at least, if they are part of it, both sides should understand exactly what needs to be done and when.  The key ingredient of the offer to purchase is that both sides completely understand the terms and are comfortable with them.  Too many sales fall apart because of a misunderstanding on one side or the other.

The Buyer and Seller Don’t Lose Their Patience

Both sides need to understand that the closing process takes time.  There is a myriad of details that must take place for the sale to close successfully, or to close at all.  If the parties are using outside advisors, they should make sure that they are deal-oriented.  In other words, unless the deal is illegal or unethical, the parties should insist that the deal works.  The buyer and seller should understand that the outside advisors work for them and that most decisions concerning the sale are business related and should be decided by the buyer and seller themselves.  The buyer and seller should also insist that the outside advisors keep to the scheduled closing date, unless they, not the outside advisors, delay the timing.  Prior to engaging the outside advisors, the buyer and seller should make sure that their advisors can work within the schedule.  However, the buyer and seller have to also understand that nothing can be done overnight and the closing process does take some time.

No One Likes Surprises

The seller has to be up front about his or her business.  Nothing is perfect and buyers understand this.  The minuses should be revealed at the outset because sooner or later they will be exposed.  For example, the seller should consult with his or her accountant about any tax implications prior to going to market.  The same is true for the buyer.  If financing is an issue it should be mentioned at the beginning.  If all of the concerns and problems are dealt with initially, the closing will be just a technicality.

The Buyer and Seller Must Both Feel Like They Got a Good Deal

If they do, the closing should be a simple matter.  If the chemistry works, and everyone understands and accepts the terms of the agreement, and feels that the sale is a win-win, the closing is a mere formality.

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Turn to the Professionals for Best Results

There is a direct relationship between the asking price and the amount of cash on the table at the time of the sale.  Buyers and sellers alike should keep one fact in mind.  Most businesses involve some level of seller financing.  It is customary for both buyers and sellers to have concerns regarding this kind of financing; after all, sellers don’t want to take their businesses back from the buyer.  Buyers want to generate enough money to help the business thrive and make a living.  One proven way to ensure the successful sale of a business is to turn to the experts.

Screen out Window Shoppers

The simple and very established fact is that when you choose to work with the professionals, it can streamline the entire sales process.  Business owners are typically very busy people.  That means they don’t have time to waste with window shoppers.  They also don’t want to divulge confidential information to parties that don’t possess the means to actually follow through with a successful sale. 

Business brokers and M&A advisors know that most prospective buyers are just dreamers or will ultimately fail to qualify.  When you work with the professionals, it means that you have a shield to protect you and your valuable time.  Experienced brokers have a range of techniques that screen out unqualified candidates and match you with buyers who are the best fit. 

Maintain Confidentiality 

Anyone who has ever sold a business, or even contemplated selling a business, knows all too well that confidentiality is of the utmost importance.  Sellers need to know that the information they reveal will not spill out all over the web.  Brokers are experts maintaining confidentiality and impressing upon prospective buyers the tremendous importance of honoring the agreements they sign. 

It is important to note that leaks regarding the sale of a business can cause a range of often unexpected problems.  Key employees may get nervous about their future prospects and begin looking for a new job, competitors may begin attempting to poach employees, or customers and key suppliers may get nervous and turn to your competitors.  In short, serious buyers and sellers alike benefit from maintaining confidentiality.

Matching the right seller with the right buyer is truly an art and a science. Many factors are involved ranging from financing to psychology. When the right match is made, then it is possible to move through the process of seller financing more quickly and with fewer roadblocks or complications.  Working with a business broker or M&A advisor is the single most important step that any buyer or seller can make to help ensure that seller financing, and in fact the entire sales process, progresses as smoothly as possible.

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Successfully Navigating Seller Financing

Only a small percentage of the population is able to go through life without using some form of financing at some point.  Most people have little choice but to finance everything from their home and car purchases to their college education.  Now, with that stated, most business owners would love to receive an all-cash offer for their business.  But the reality of the situation is quite different.  The facts are that owner financing is very common, and it is sometimes the only way to put a deal together.

Sellers have to be ready and willing to entertain the idea that they may, ultimately, be called upon to handle some aspect of financing if they want to sell their business.  It surprises many to learn that if a seller is not willing to finance the sale, then buyers begin to worry and may even see this as something of a “red flag.”  The reason for this is that many buyers feel that if a business is a solid investment, then the business will be profitable and repaying the seller should be no problem. 

Buyers may worry that if a seller isn’t willing to help with financing there could be a “hidden” problem with the business.  It might occur to them that sellers are “jumping from a sinking ship.”  It is important that sellers keep this important aspect of buyer psychology in mind when addressing whether or not they are willing to finance.

Buyer psychology plays a major role in another aspect of seller financing and that comes in the form of collateral.  Sellers may want to have some form of outside collateral to secure the loan on their business.  While this may seem perfectly understandable to the seller, buyers can have something of a nervous response to this issue as well.  As much as buyers worry that a seller’s refusal to provide financing is a red flag, the same holds true for sellers who seek collateral.  Once again, the concern is that if the business was healthy and thriving there should be no need for collateral.  The buyer is left wondering, “What is going on here?  How worried should I be?  Why do they need collateral if this business is so great?” 

Typically, buyers are “maxed out” when buying a main street business.  They are allocating most of their available funds to the down payment on the business.  That means they will be unlikely to “push all their chips in” and gamble everything by also putting up the home, retirement funds or other collateral in the process.  Sellers need to see the situation from the buyer’s perspective and remember that a collateral requirement could mean that if the business fails, the buyer could be left with nothing.

Navigating the complex interaction between buyers and sellers is no easy feat.  It requires a careful balancing of several different skills, ranging from understanding finance to psychology.  Working with an experienced business broker can help buyers and sellers connect and find workable agreements so deals can get made.

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Four Common Seller Mistakes

Sellers are just like everyone else in that they can make mistakes.  In this article, we’ll explore some of the most common mistakes that we see along with some of the repercussions. 

1. Not Seeing the Buyer’s Point of View

The first major mistake that sellers make is that they simply fail to look at the situation from the buyer’s perspective.  One of the smartest moves any seller can make is to step back and ask themselves two key questions. 

 “What information would I expect to see if I was thinking about buying this business? 

“Would I trust the information being presented to me if I was the buyer?” 

While there are many other questions sellers can ask to help reframe their thinking, these two simple questions can orient a seller’s thinking towards a buyer’s perspective.  Additionally, investing the time to understand the buyer’s position can help avoid a range of problems and help smooth out the negotiation process.

2. Neglecting the Business During the Sales Process

Another seller mistake we see is that the seller neglects the business during the sales process.  This can have significant negative long-term consequences.  Sellers must understand that they must maintain the day-to-day operations as though the business is still theirs.  The old saying, “Don’t count your chickens before they’ve hatched,” most definitely applies to selling any business.  Business deals fall apart all the time.  This is true from small deals to corporate acquisitions. 

3. Overall Lack of Preparation 

Any seller who is truly serious about selling his or her business will have all of their documentation available and well organized.  This list would include financial records, environmental studies, business forecasts and more.  It is important to make a good impression and convey to prospective buyers that a business is well organized and ready to be sold.  Disorganization on any level could make prospective buyers worry that the business isn’t being operated in a professional manner.

4. Holding Misconceptions Around a Business’ Value

Finally, a real “deal killer” can be when sellers don’t understand (or have a mental block) concerning the real value of their business.  This issue can lead many business owners to set a price that is simply too high or even completely unrealistic.  Many sellers have put years of blood, sweat and tears into a business.  Learning that their business isn’t as valuable as they had hoped can be an emotional, psychological and financial blow all in one.  But sellers also have to adjust to the realities of what the market will bear. 

Avoiding seller pitfalls is incredibly important.  Working with a skilled and proven business broker or M&A advisor is a way for buyers and sellers alike to avoid an array of significant problems that could otherwise arise.

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Unraveling the Seller’s Predicament

Selling a business isn’t always 100% about the price.  It is not like selling a house where typically the most important factor is who places the highest offer.  In the end, if the seller is to achieve the most optimal results, there are other variables that should be considered. 

The idea of selling to a competitor is one that seems attractive to many business owners.  After all, a competitor has the built-in advantage of understanding the business and thus can theoretically understand the value of the business better than an outsider.  But while this point is quite valid, selling to a competitor comes with its own problems.  Selling means disclosing a great deal of confidential information, and that could prove to be very risky if the deal were to fall apart.

A second avenue that sellers will often explore is selling to a financial buyer.  A financial buyer is likely not to be a competitor.  But on the downside, a financial buyer may be unwilling to pay the seller’s price.  It is important to remember that a financial buyer is considering buying the business with the intention of selling it for a profit within a few years.

The highest selling price may come from a strategic acquirer.  But this doesn’t necessarily mean selling to a strategic acquirer is the most prudent course of action for a seller.  A strategic acquirer may not have the best interests of the company at heart.  When a strategic acquirer takes ownership, key employees and management may be replaced.  The company may even be moved.  Many owners are unprepared for the shock that may come along with a strategic acquisition.

There are other potential buyers, many of whom are frequently overlooked, who may be the optimal fit for a given business.  It is possible that the best buyer for a company could be one of its employees.  However, this option comes with risks as well.  Key employees and management may leave if the deal falls through, as they now know that the company is for sale.

Finding overlooked buyers is what business brokers do best.  Matching the right buyer with the right business is both a science and an art.  Teaming with the right business broker or M&A advisor can open up a range of new avenues and help a seller reach the kind of buyer that is as close as possible to the perfect fit.

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Buying a Distressed Business 

It is safe to state that Howard Brownstein, President of The Brownstein Corporation, is a true expert in providing turnaround management and advisory services to companies, as well as their stakeholders.  Brownstein serves as an independent corporate board member for both publicly held as well as privately-owned companies and nonprofits.  During his career, he has been named a Board Leadership Fellow by the National Association of Corporate Directors (NACD) and served as Board Chair and President of its Philadelphia Chapter.  He also serves as Vice Chair of the ABA Corporate Governance Committee and has been named a Fellow of the American Bar Foundation.  He has been a speaker at many of the world’s top universities including Harvard Business School and Wharton.  Brownstein received his J.D. and M.B.A. degrees from the University of Pennsylvania.

Mr. Brownstein is considered to be one of the world’s top experts in distressed businesses.  He believes it is essential to remember that not all distressed businesses are, in fact, the same.  There is simply no way to know how bad things are for a given distressed business until one begins to “look under the hood,” and get a full view of what problems may lurk underneath. 

Brownstein firmly believes that distressed businesses can represent a real and often overlooked opportunity for buyers.  The recent economic downturn brought about by COVID-19 means that there will likely be a great deal more distressed businesses on the market in the coming months or even in the next couple of years. 

Why is a Given Business Distressed? 

Before you consider purchasing a distressed business, you absolutely must understand the core reasons for the distresses.  Without a proper and detailed understanding of why the business entered a state of distress in the first place, it is impossible to clearly articulate why the business will potentially be valuable in the future.  It is essential to be able to convey “what went wrong” and how the problems can be fixed.

Brownstein points out that while there are many reasons for a business to enter distress, two symptoms top the list.  The first is cash flow issues and the second issue relates to management.  Often it turns out that the management was simply not rigorous enough.  He also notes that companies will tend to gravitate to external issues as a way to explain away their failure.

Of course, no two distressed businesses are failing from 100% identical causes.  Brownstein suggests a series of questions that you need to ask when you begin exploring a distressed business.

  1. What is the business’ potential value?
  2. Is there something of value under the problems?
  3. Under better or different circumstances, could the business be viable?

These are all questions that your business broker or M&A advisor can assist with.  It’s important to gain a clear understanding of the business’ past, present and future. 

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How Should Your Company Deal with an Orphaned Product?

Keeping a product or service around that isn’t pulling its weight might prove to not be a very good idea.  You may have invested a good deal of time and resources into its development, but if that product or service is no longer contributing to your bottom line, it might be time to cut it loose.  Even if your product is pulling its weight, but doesn’t fit into your overall core business, then you should still consider getting rid of this “orphaned product.”  Let’s take a look at some of the reasons you might want to keep or remove, an orphan product from your company.

There are four main reasons why a company might want to divest itself of a product line or service completely:

  1. An orphaned product line can be a distraction that takes away from core business operations. 
  2. Funds allocated to an orphaned product could be used instead to build the core business or make improvements that are not in the current budget. 
  3. Another good reason to remove an orphaned product from your lineup is that while it could ultimately be profitable with increased resources, the funds would be better allocated elsewhere.
  4. Your orphaned product could be profitable.  Some buyers, companies and private equity groups are looking for product lines they can use to augment their existing ones.  In fact, some buyers may even want to build a new business around a given product line.

Of course, it isn’t always as simple as “pulling the plug” and moving on.  It is important to step back and consider the negative impacts of jettisoning an orphaned product, such as the fact that the product line could have key employees attached to it.  Or there could be company culture issues related to removing the product, such as causing disruption within your company.  You must also consider if the orphaned product could ultimately play a role in the sale of your company.

At the end of the day, an acquiring company may feel that the orphaned product line is a great fit for their existing distribution chain.  Additionally, your offering might fit into a new product line that the acquiring company has launched.  It is important that you evaluate every aspect of an orphaned product before making the decision to remove it from your company. 

Understanding the needs and goals of your most likely buyers should play a role in your decision making.  Working with an experienced business broker is an easy way to increase your chances of making the right decision.

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Price or Terms: The Structure of the Deal

An old saying in negotiating the sale of a business goes like this: The buyer says to the seller, “You name the price, and I get to name the terms.”

Another saying used to explain the actual value of the term full price: “If we could find you a business that nets you $250,000 a year after debt service, and you could buy it for $100 down, would you really care what the full price was?”

It seems that everyone is concerned only about full price.  And yet, full price is just part of the equation.  If a seller is willing to accept a relatively small down payment and carry the balance, a higher full price can be achieved.  On the other hand, the more cash the seller wants up front, the lower the full price. If the seller demands all cash, barring some form of outside financing, full price lowers – and, in most cases, the chance of selling decreases as well.  Even in cases where outside financing is used, such as through SBA, etc., the lender will do everything possible to ensure that the price makes sense.

Sellers should understand that both what they hope to accomplish in the sale of their business and the structure of the actual sale can dramatically influence the asking price.  Price is obviously important, but other factors may be even more important.  For example, consider a seller with health issues who needs to sell as quickly as possible.  In his case, timing becomes more essential than price.  Another seller may place more importance on her business remaining in the community.  In her case, finding a buyer who will not move the business may supersede price or certainly influence it.

Likewise, the structure of the deal can both influence price and be a more significant factor than price to either the buyer or the seller.  The structure can dictate how much cash the seller receives up front, which may be more important than price for some sellers.  On the other hand, sellers should also be aware how much the interest on their carry-back can add up to.  If cash is not an immediate concern, monthly payments with an above-average interest rate may be enticing.

These examples all demonstrate the importance of the business broker professional sitting down with the seller prior to recommending a go-to-market price.  During this meeting, the broker should find out what is really important to the seller, as these issues may have a direct bearing on the price.

Sellers should look at the following factors and rank them according to importance on a scale of one to five, with five being extremely important.

•    Buyer Qualifications
•    Full Price
•    Amount of Cash Involved
•    Financing
•    Confidentiality
•    Commission/Selling Fees
•    Closing Costs
•    Exclusive Listing
•    How the Business is Shown
•    Advertising/Marketing
•    How a New Owner Continues the Business

By ranking these items and discussing them with a professional Business Broker, a seller can receive helpful advice from the broker on price, terms, and structuring the sale.

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Considering Generational Strategies

When you are buying or selling a business, you might very well end up making a deal with someone from another generation.  Therefore, it only makes sense to take the time to understand that individual’s background and how that might cause behavioral differences.  It is important to understand and reflect upon where many of them are coming from and the collective experiences and trends that shaped their identities and perspectives.  At the same time, you can identify your own biases, strengths and weaknesses that may be caused by your own upbringing.

The strategies in this article originated from Chuck Underwood who is considered a leading expert in the diversity of communication styles between generations.  He is the author of a major book on the subject as well as host of the long-running “America’s Generations with Chuck Underwood” on PBS. 

Generational Sensitivity 

Underwood’s perspective is that people of each generation were molded by their unique formative years.  The decisions that buyers and sellers make will be impacted by their generation.  Mostly likely, the buyers or sellers you will be coming into contact with will be either Baby Boomers, Generation Xers and Millennials. 

Working with Baby Boomers

Baby Boomers (those born between 1946 and 1964) are a major force in the business world.  While they often possess a patriotic passion to improve the country, they were also witness to a time of great change via many movements including the civil rights and women’s movement. 

When you’re dealing with Baby Boomers, it is important to remember that they will want to build relationships and get to know you.  Common courtesy is very important to Baby Boomers.  That means they’ll expect you to show up on time and turn your phone off during meetings. 

You’ll want to keep in mind that older Baby Boomers may be experiencing hearing and eyesight loss.  As a result, you’ll want to keep your type and font size larger, and make text easy to read. 

When you’re working with your clients, it only makes sense to pay attention to the generation during which they were raised and adapt your approach accordingly.  Understanding generational differences will help you get a leg up on the competition while at the same time helping your clients achieve their goals.

What is Generation X?

Generation X (or Gen X) had a wildly different formative experience than the Baby Boomers.  Generation X is generally defined as being born from 1965 to 1980.  This generation spent its formative years from the 1970’s through the 1990’s.  In stark contrast the relatively more pleasant and optimistic childhoods of the Baby Boomers, Gen X had a rougher ride. 

America became more mobile during the time period during which Generation Xers grew up.  As a result, many children were uprooted and separated from their friends, family and hometown roots.  Growing up, these individuals witnessed a variety of scandals ranging from political and religious figures to sports figures.  Gen Xers witnessed the systematic dismantling of the American middle class and with it a general lowering of quality of life, opportunities and confidence in corporations.  In the end, Gen X was quite literally left home alone and lived as “latch key kids.”  It is no wonder that this neglected generation has some issues.

Individuals growing up during this time learned early on that they had to be ready to fend for themselves.  Since Gen Xers have been met with consistent and systematic disappointment and even wide scale institutional betrayal, this generation, on average, is more distrustful of organizations. 

Gen Xers are self-reliant and independent and one of their core values is survival of the fittest.  In his view, Gen Xers are self-focused, individualistic and want everyone to skip the nonsense and get to the point.  They have no real interest in getting to know you or playing a round of golf.

Working with Millennials

Millennials spent their formative years in the 1980s and early 90s.  They are a very optimistic and tech savvy generation.  They are also the most classroom educated generation in history.

It is also very important to note that Millennials are the most adult supervised generation in history.  So-called “helicopter parents” who work to protect their children from setbacks are the norm.  Employers find that Millennials are entering adulthood, but are still relying upon their parents to help them make decisions and even career choices.

Where Gen Xers are distrustful of the “wisdom of their elders,” Millennials actively seek out such advice.  Likewise, Millennials tend to volunteer a good deal and look for ways to solve the world’s largest problems.

You will find that Millennials will enjoy building a relationship with you.  Keep in mind these individuals tend to be quite socially conscious and they may very well expect you to agree with their views.  Additionally, there is a chance that they will have their parents involved in their business dealings. 

Keep in mind that the de facto tech addiction, or at the very least acute overreliance on technology, has led to issues with Millennials’ soft skills.  They can often lack the ability to read another person’s body language and adjust accordingly.

In the end, regardless of what generation you are working with, it is important that you continually adapt.  This will greatly increase the odds of cementing a successful deal.

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